Table of Contents


Simple search

Perform a simple search by typing keywords into the search box and clicking Search. The search engine will return results that include all of your search terms.

Punctuation and case will not affect your search results. For example, using either of the two terms below will give you identical results:

Mr. K. Kealawaa
Mr k kealawaa

Exact Phrase Search

You can search for an exact phrase by placing quotation marks around your search terms. Typing [ "ʻike kuʻu maka" ] for example will return only those results which contain the words ʻike kuʻu maka together in that exact order.

Boolean Operators

Boolean operators AND, OR and NOT can be used to refine your search results. They must be written as capital (uppercase) letters. AND will return only results that contain all of the terms or phrases; NOT will exclude results containing the second term or phrase; and OR will return results that contain either of the terms or phrases.

For example, [ hālawa AND molokaʻi ] will return results containing both the words molokaʻi and hālawa in the same file. This is the same as just typing the two words as a basic search; for example [ hālawa molokaʻi ] or [ molokaʻi hālawa ].

Searching for [ hālawa NOT molokaʻi ] will return only those files which contain the word hālawa where the word molokaʻi does not also occur.

Finally, searching for [ hālawa OR molokaʻi ] will return files which contain either the word hālawa or the word molokaʻi.

Boolean searches also work with quoted phrases. For example [ “molokaʻi nui a hina” AND “maui o kama” ] will return the expected results showing only files which contain both of those phrases.

Advanced search

Click Advanced search to show the "Advanced search" popup. This allows you to limit your search results by:

  • A date range
  • One or more publications

It also allows you to search within:

  • Article text, Page text, Article titles and Article translations
  • Page text
  • Article titles
  • Article translations
  • Dedication text
and choose whether you would like text or image previews displayed with your search results.

Advanced query syntax

Query terms can be boosted to increase their importance in the search, thus changing the order of the search results. This is done by adding "^" and a boost factor at the end of the term. For example:

hanalei river^2 treats "river" as more important than "hanalei" when ranking the search results returned.

Wildcard searches can be performed by including "?" for a single character wildcard in the query term. For example:

i?i - will match all three letter words beginning and ending with ‘i’ such as ili, ihi, iki, iwi

Include "*" for a multiple character wildcard in the query term. For example:

hoʻo* - will match all words starting with "hoʻo" such as hoʻomalu, hoʻolaha and hoʻopapa

A fuzzy search will retrieve terms that are similar to a specified term without necessarily being an exact match. It can help to compensate for errors in the text due to the Optical Character Recognition process. Add "~1" to the end of individual terms, for example:

pekuna~1 will find terms like "peruna" and "pekina" as well as "pekana"

Proximity searching allows you to search for words that appear close together in the text. For example:

"Keoni Kamika"~3 will find results containing both the words "Keoni" and "Kamika" where they are no more than 3 words apart. As well as finding "Keoni Kamika" it will also find "Keoni L. Kamika", "Keoni Kalani Kamika", "Keoni Keawe-Kamika" and even "Kamika, Keoni".

Search filters

Any filters applied to the search are shown below the search box. You can remove these by clicking them, or remove them all by clicking "Clear all".

On the search results page, the area at the left of the page shows the most common values occurring in various categories in the search results. Selecting one of these facets applies it as a search filter.

Using Glottal Stops and Macrons

In all default searches on Kaniʻāina, the kahakō (macron) and ʻokina (glottal stop) are not significant, meaning that a search for [ pololei ] will find all occurances of pololei as well as pololeʻi. To enable the inclusion of kahakō and ʻokina, use the Search Settings area, described below.

Navigating articles and pages

The document viewer is split into two parts: the right side shows the page images that make up the document, and the left side is used for displaying metadata and text.

Common navigation tasks:

Previous/next issue - use Previous issue Browse all issues of this publication Next issue to go back to the previous issue in the publication, browse all issues of the publication, or advance to the next issue in the publication.

Previous/next search result - use Previous search result Back to search result list Next search result to go back to the previous search result, return to the search results page, or advance to the next search result.

Maximise the viewing area - use Maximize in the upper right hand corner.

Zoom in/out - use the magnifying glass symbols Zoom in Zoom out in the upper right hand corner or use the wheel on your mouse.

Pan (move the image around the screen) - left-click and hold to drag the image around.

Previous/next page - use Previous page Next page to go back to the previous page or show the next page in the issue.

Optical Character Recognition

Optical Character Recognition, or OCR, is a process by which software reads a page image and translates it into a text file by recognising the shapes of the letters (The NINCH Guide to Good Practice in the Digital Representation and Management of Cultural Heritage Materials).

OCR enables searching of large quantities of full-text data, but it is never 100% accurate. The level of accuracy depends on the print quality of the original issue, its condition at the time of microfilming, the level of detail captured by the microfilm scanner, and the quality of the OCR software. Issues with poor quality paper, small print, mixed fonts, multiple column layouts, or damaged pages may have poor OCR accuracy.

The searchable text and titles in this collection have been automatically generated using OCR software. They have not been manually reviewed or corrected.


Articles can be printed directly from your web browser.

If available, PDF versions of issues and pages can be downloaded for printing.

Technical requirements

In general, you only need a common web browser like Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Opera, Microsoft Edge or Internet Explorer to search and browse this collection.

To view or print PDFs, you will also need a PDF viewer like Adobe Acrobat Reader.